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Qin and Han Encircle Liang, And Yan and Zhao Come to Its Aid



Qin and Han encircled Liang, and Yan and Zhao came to its aid. Someone spoke about this to Lord Shanyang[1], saying, "If Qin fights the Three States[2] and wins, it will have to cross Zhou and Han to take possession of Liang. If the three states defeat Qin, then their combined strength is not sufficient to attack Qin, though it is enough to seize Zheng[3]. When it comes to your strategy, nothing would be better than to ally with the three states and attack Qin."

[1] Lord Shanyang was a high-ranking politician in Han.

[2] Liang, Yan and Zhao. 

[3] Zheng in this case refers to the capital of Han at the time, Xinzheng, which was close to the Liang capital of Daliang. This is still called Xinzheng and is in modern Henan.

Fu Ji Builds a Large Residence for Himself



Fu Ji[1] built a residence for himself. It was very big. Jing Gan[2] talked about it with the King[3], who spoke to Master Fu, saying, "Why did you build such a large home?"

Fu Ji said, "I have desisted in my wanderings[4] and my rank here is high but my emoluments are meagre. Because my home was so small, I could welcome no crowds of dependants; even if you trust me, the hundred clans will all say, 'When the state has a significant affair in hand Ji will be of no use[5].' Now I have a grand palace[6], I will capture the trust of the hundred clans."

The King said, "Very well."

[1] Fu Ji was a politician in Zhao. 

[2] Jing Gan was from Chu but served as an official in Zhao.

[3] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. It is not clear which sovereign is indicated here.

[4] I.e. he is no longer looking for alternative employment offers.

[5] The implication is that Fu Ji had no family members that could be held as hostages by the state in order to guarantee his good faith when engaged in diplomatic missions.

[6] Yao suggests 室 for 宮 here.

Su Qin Exercises his Persuasions on Li Dui



Su Qin[1] exercised his persuasions on Li Dui[2], saying, "I am nondescript official from the Su clan[3] of Luoyang[4], whose household is poor and whose parents are old, without even a broken-down cart or a tired old horse to my name, nor a carriage with mulberry wheels and panels woven from blue fleabane[5]. Carrying my books in a sack over my shoulder, covered in dust, frozen by frost and soaked by the dew, I crossed the Zhang[6] and the Yellow River, blistering my feet. I walked a hundred li a day before finding a place to rest, finally arriving at the steps of your palace seeking and audience before you in order to discourse upon the affairs of All-Under-Heaven."

Li Dui said, "If you are seeking an audience in order to relay comments from the spirit world, professor, then very well. When it comes to the affairs of humans, I know everything there is to know[7]."

Su Qin replied, "Your servant is indeed seeking an audience to relay comments from the spirit world, and not those of humans." Li Dui accorded him an audience. Su Qin said, "I arrived here at dusk[8], after the city gates had been closed. I could find nowhere to spread a sleeping mat, so I spent the night in someone's field, next to a sacred grove. Halfway through the night, one of the clay images there had words with one of the wooden ones[9], saying: 'You are no equal to me. I am made of earth[10]; if I meet with biting winds and pouring rain and am damaged[11], I will simply return to the earth. Now if you are not made from a root, then you must be made from a branch[12]. If you meet with biting winds and drenching rain, you will float into the Zhang and then the Yellow River, which flows eastwards until it arrives at the sea, where you will drift on the currents and find nowhere to rest.' Privately, I felt that the clay statue won the argument. Now you have killed the King's father[13] and his family[14]. You have established a position for yourself in All-Under-Heaven, but right now you are in danger and walking on eggshells. If Your Lordship listens to my strategy you will live, and if you do not you will die."

Li Dui said, "You will stay here in the palace, Professor, and return for an audience with me tomorrow." Su Qin left.



A member of Li Dui's household spoke to him, saying, "Your servant was bold enough to listen in on your conversation with Su Qin. His arguments and his learning pass over your head, can you follow his strategies?"

Li Dui said, "I cannot."

The retainer said, "If you cannot, then I hope you will block your ears and refuse to listen to his conversation." The next day, Su Qin returned for his audience, talked all day, and then left. The retainer accompanied him. 

Su Qin spoke to him, saying, "Yesterday my speech was unsubtle, but your Lord was influenced by it. Today my speech was refined, but he was not. Why?"

The retainer said, "Your strategies are expansive and extremely elegant, professor. My Lord is incapable of making use of them. Therefore I begged him to block his ears firmly[15] and not listen to your conversation. Nevertheless, if you come back tomorrow, I will request that he place abundant resources at your disposal." The next day Su Qin returned, pressed his hands together, and spoke. Li Dui sent Su Qin a moon-bright pearl[16], the Heshibi jade[17], a sable coat and a hundred yi of gold[18]. Su Qin took all of this and headed westwards into Qin to put it to use.

[1] The commentaries disagree on whether this refers to Su Qin or is an error for one of his brothers. 

[2] Li Dui was Prime Minister of Zhao under King Huiwen.

[3] The commentaries suggest 某 for 秦 here.

[4] This is an alternative orthography for 洛阳. Luoyang is still called Luoyang, and is in modern Henan. The commentaries strongly disagree regarding every possible interpretation of this sentence, and this rendering is a best-guess approach. 

[5] Commentaries and modern translations disagree on the interpretation of this sentence. It my be intended to refer back to Su Qin "winding up his worn out puttees" in the Qin section.

[6] The Zhang River flows through Shanxi, Hebei and Henan.

[7] The commentaries suggest that the 之 here may be superfluous.

[8] This sentence begins with Su Qin announcing that he arrived that same day. This seems impossible. In ancient China the day began either at dawn or 11pm, depending on the system used, thus - unless we assume that this interview was taking place in the pre-dawn darkness - the story he tells must have been happening on the previous day. 

[9] These would both have been religious images, likely set up to protect the city gates. 

[10] The commentaries suggest that the 者 here may be superfluous.

[11] The commentaries disagree on the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. 

[12] The implication seems to be that a root, at least, belongs in the earth.

[13] King Wuling of Zhao (325 – 299 BC) oversaw Zhao's transition to light cavalry tactics, a move that won them several significant victories and was rapidly followed by the other states. He later abdicated in favour of his son, King Huiwen, but continued to take an active part in politics. Eventually, his younger son, Zhao Zhang, rebelled and then took refuge with Wuling following a defeat by Huiwen and his Chancellor, Li Dui. Li Dui then proceeded to besiege both of them. Wuling killed Zhang in an attempt to life the siege. It did not work and he was starved to death. 

[14] Not all of them; Huiwen - at least - survived. 

[15] Reading 堅塞 for 塞, per the commentaries. 

[16] The commentaries suggest this may be intended to read 明日. 

[17] The Heshibi Jade was a celebrated treasure, originally from Chu. The commentaries suggest that at the time King Zhaoxiang of Qin was proposing to exchange fifteen fortified cities for it.  

[18] The commentaries disagree on the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. 


Zhao Gathers All-Under-Heaven to Attack Qi



Zhao gathered All-Under-Heaven to attack Qi. Su Qin[1] sent a memorial to the King of Zhao[2] on Qi's behalf, saying, "Your servant has heard that even when the the virtuous conduct of the wise lords of old was not imitated throughout the lands within the four seas, when their teachings and guidance, their kindness and affection did not spread among all their multitudinous citizens, when the ancestral and seasonal sacrifices were not performed as required by the gods and spirits, and still the sweet dew descended and the winds and rains arrived in due season[3], the crops ripened and the year's grain harvest flourished, then the masses were delighted[4], but it made their wise sovereigns uneasy. Now for all your skill and strength, you have never contributed much to Qin's cause, and for all the hatred that your mutual grudges have| generated, you have never had any serious conflict with Qi[5]. Your servant has listened to the discussions going on outside, from your permanent secretaries down to the lowest officials, and all say until now you have been entirely taken up with the belief that Qin favoured Zhao and hated Qi[4]. Your servant took the liberty of casting an eye over this affair; how could Qin favour Zhao and hate Qi? Qin wishes to swallow up the lands of Han and the two Zhous, so it used Qi to bait you, beginning by letting word of its designs against Qi spread throughout All-Under-Heaven, wishing its neighbours to see and hear about it[6]. Then, afraid that this would not be sufficient to bring off the affair, Qin feigned a military deployment in order that Zhao and Wei should see it[7]. Afraid that All-Under-Heaven would be startled into consciousness, it has made only small encroachments upon Han's territory in order to minimise the likelihood that the other states in All-Under-Heaven would guess what was happening. Afraid that All-Under-Heaven would grow suspicious, it dispatched hostages to create trust. While making noises about honour to its allies, Qin really intends to attack Han while it is undefended. Your servant has been observing this discreetly, and I am of the opinion that Qin's strategy will certainly now be put into action."



In their arguments, the rhetoricians all say that when Han loses Sanchuan[8] and Wei wipes out Jin[9], calamity will reach Zhao before Han's fall is complete[10]. The fact is, different circumstances can produce similar misfortunes, while similar circumstances can produce different misfortunes. In the past, the partisans of Chu spent years at war, and as a result Zhongshan was wiped out[11]. Now Yan has expanded into the lands to the North of Qi[12], occupying three hundred li from Shaqiu[13] to the border at Julu[14], and one thousand five hundred li[15] from Hanguan[16] to Yuzhong[17]. Qin has expanded into Han and Wei's territories in Shangdang[18]. Now the lands under its possession stretch as far as your capital, and it has carved out a shared border of seven hundred li. If Qin uses the crossbows of its three armies to occupy Yangchang[19], then from there to Handan[20] is just twenty li. If Qin uses its three armies to attack Your Majesty in Shangdang then the North of your state will be in danger and the lands west of Juzhu[21] will no longer be yours. After crossing the pass at Juzhu[22] they wil be able to restrict your access to Changshan[23] and make a stronghold of it. If they travel three hundred li more, they will be in Yan's territories of Tang[24] and Quni[25]. This being so, the shipments of Dai and Hu horses[26] and Kunshan jade[27] eastwards into Qi will cease. That makes three treasures that will no longer be yours. From this point, mighty Qin[28] will attack Qi, and your servant is afraid that disaster will ensue. In the past[29], the Kings of the Five States[30] formed an alliance and planned to attack Zhao in order to divide its lands three ways[31]. The articles of the alliance were engraved on a bronze bowl from which they drank a toast. When the day that the five states were to send out their troops arrived, Qi sent its divisions west and prevented Qin from mobilising, forcing Qin to issue a declaration of national mourning, offer its submission and obedience, and return Wen[32], Zhi[33] and Gaoping[34] to Wei, and Sangong[35] and Shenqing[36] to Zhao, as Your Majesty is well aware. In serving Zhao's interests, Qi formed a valuable connection with you[37], and now you going to repay them with unprovoked aggression. I am afraid that when this is over[38] those who once served your interests will not dare honour their previous commitments. If you receive Qi as an ally[39], then All-Under-Heaven will consider this a meritorious deed[40]. Qi will serve you to preserve its altars of earth and grain[41] and your influence within All-Under-Heaven will grow. This being so, Qi's respect for you will attract the other states within All-Under-Heaven, and Qi's praise will make them your allies[42]. Thus the fate of a generation will be under Your Majesty's sole control. I hope that your will weigh up this plan thoroughly with your attendants, your private secretaries and your military strategists, thinking and plotting intensively before undertaking this affair."

[1] The commentaries suggest that this may actually be intended to refer to Su Li, Su Qin's younger brother who adopted a similar anti-Qin line.

[2] King Huiwen of Zhao (298 – 266 BC) was a younger son of King Wuling of Zhao, who abdicated in Huiwen's favour. Wuling's elder son, Zhao Zhang, rebelled, but was defeated and pursued by Huiwen's Chancellor, Li Dui. Zhao Zhang fled to his father's residence, where Li Dui besieged them. Wuling killed Zhang in an attempt to convince Li Dui to let him out, but Li Dui starved him to death. King Huiwen had a successful reign, defeating Qin more than once.

[3] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. 

[4] Reading 善 for 喜, per the commentaries. 

[5] Reading 齊 for 韓 throughout, following modern translations. The commentaries and modern translations disagree regarding the correct interpretation of this sentence, and this is a best guess approach. 

[6] The implication seems to be that Qin aims to distract Zhao by means of an invasion of Qi while it annexes Han and the two Zhous. 

[7] I.e. Qin is acting as though it intends to attack Qi, while it is really planning to attack Han and the two Zhous. 

[8] Sanchuan (or Three Rivers) Commandery, part of modern Henan. Han took it from Chu. 

[9] This is probably a reference to Anyi, the former capital. Anyi was in modern Yuncheng, in Shanxi.

[10] This sentence is disputed, and the Shiji version reads entirely differently, being something along the lines of: "When Han loses Sanchuan and Wei wipes out Jin, then calamity will reach Zhao before the morning market regulations have changed."

[11] While Qin and Chu were occupied with their conflict, Zhao had the latitude to annex Zhongshan.

[12] Following the Shiji version and reading 燕盡齊之北地 for 燕盡韓之河南. The version in the Stratagems makes no geographical sense.

[13] Shaqiu was in modern Guangzong County, Hebei.

[14] Julu was modern Xingtai in Hebei. The border referred to here is Zhao's.

[15] The commentaries suggest that this may be intended to read "five hundred li".

[16] It is not clear where Hanguan was.

[17] It is not clear where Yuzhong was.

[18] Shangdang Commandery was a key strategic area on the border of several states.

[19] Reading 腸 for 唐 per the commentaries. This was somewhere in the Taihang Mountains, but there are several candidates for its precise location.

[20] Handan was the capital of Zhao. It is still called Handan and is in Hebei.

[21] Juzhu refers to the Yanmen Pass in modern Shanxi.

[22] Reading 踰 for 魯 here, per the commentaries. 

[23] Changshan Commandery was in modern Hebei.

[24] Tang was in modern Tang County, in Hebei.

[25] Reading 曲逆 for 曲吾, per the commentaries. Quni was in modern Shunping County, Hebei.

[26] These were horses raised by nomadic groups on the steppes, much larger and faster than native Chinese breeds.

[27] Kunshan jade was from the Kunlun Mountains, in the far West of China.

[28] Reading 與 for 國 per the commentaries. 

[29] The commentaries suggest that the 昔者 here may be superfluous. 

[30] The commentaries say that this refers to Chu, Han, Qi, Wei and Yan, which does not seem to fit with the next sentence implying that Qin was a key part of this agreement.

[31] Reading 三 for 參, per the commentaries. 

[32] It is not clear where Wen was.

[33] The commentaries suggest reading 軹 for 枳. This was in modern Jiyuan, Henan.

[34] Gaoping is in modern Shanxi.

[35] The commentaries suggest that this may be an error for 巠分 (Jingfen). It is not clear where either of these places were.

[36] The commentaries suggest that this may be an error for 先俞 (Xianyu), which was in modern Dai County, Shanxi.

[37] The commentaries suggest that the 正 here is superfluous.

[38] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. 

[39] Reading 收齊 for 收, per the commentaries. 

[40] This sentence may be garbled, and this is a best-guess interpretation. 

[41] Reading 抱 for 危 here, per the commentaries.  

[42] The Shiji version is entirely different: 王以天下善秦,秦暴,王以天下禁之 - "you can ensure that All-Under-Heaven treats Qin favourably, and if Qin responds with violence, then you can ensure that All-Under-Heaven will put a stop to it". 

Qi Attacks Song, Though Lord Fengyang Opposes it


Qi attacked Song, though Lord Fengyang[1] opposed it. A guest spoke to Lord Fengyang, saying, "Your springs and autumns are piling up, and you have not yet secured a domain for yourself - you cannot be remiss in planning for this. Qin's partisans are covetous: Han and Wei are in danger. Yan[2] and Chu[3] are far away. Zhongshan's lands are inadequate. Song's transgressions are serious and Qi's resentment is deep. By repressing Song's disorders you will secure a domain of your own, while making Qi honoured and strong. This is a once-in-a-hundred-generations opportunity."

[1] Lord Fengyang was the title of Li Dui, Chancellor of Zhao.

[2] Reading 燕 for 衛, per the commentaries. 

[3] Reading 僻 for 正, per the commentaries. 

THe King of Qin Speaks to Prince Ta



The King of Qin[1] spoke to Prince Ta[2], saying, "In the past, during the incident at the foot of Mount Xiao[3], Han's army held the centre in a joint attack on Qin by the sovereign lords. The territories of Han and Qin share a border, and Han's land cannot total more than a thousand li, but they swing this way and that and it is impossible to make treaties with them. On the day that Qin and Chu fought at Lantian[5], Han dispatched its elite troops to aid Qin, but when Qin did not seem to be gaining from the conflict they seized the chance to double back and join up with Chu. They make no reliable covenants, merely following whichever side seems most favourable. Han is a tumor eating at my heart and my guts and I intend to cut it out. What do you think?"

Gongzi Ta said, "If Your Majesty sends troops to into Han, Han will certainly panic. If they panic, it is possible that you will be able to take much land, which they will cede without fighting."

The King said, "Very well." Accordingly he raised troops. One army advanced on Xingyang[6] and another on Taihang[7].



Han was afraid, and sent Lord Yangcheng[8] to apologise to Qin and beg to offer it lands in Shangdang[9] in return for peace. Han Yang[10] was ordered to report this to Jin Tou[11], the Prefect of Shangdang, saying, "Qin has raised two armies, and they are approaching Han. We cannot hold them off[12]. Now the King[13] has ordered that Han's troops be mobilised and that Shangdang be given to Qin in return for peace. He has sent me to inform you of this in order that you may implement it[14]."

Jin Tou said, "There is a saying among the people: 'If you have no more brains than will fill a bottle, then do not lose your bottle.'[15] If the King has given his orders and I am being asked to surrender my command[16], it must be because both he and you suspect me[17]. Your servant requests permission to mobilise the district's forces to resist Qin. If we cannot finish them then we will die in the attempt."

Han Yang hurried back and reported this to the King, but the King said, "I already gave my word to Marquis Ying[18], if I do not now hand the land over then I will have lied to him." He sent Feng Ting[19] to replace Jin Tou.



Feng Ting held his position for thirty days and then secretly sent an envoy to the King of Zhao[20], saying, "Han cannot hold Shangdang, so it is to be offered to Qin, but the citizens of Shangdang do not want to become part of Qin - rather they wish to become part of Zhao. We currently have seventy fortified cities[21], and we wish to come and pay obeisance to Your Majesty, as only you can resolve this." 

The King of Zhao was delighted. He summoned Lord Pingyang[22] and reported the news to him, saying, "Han cannot hold Shangdang so it has been offered to Qin, but the citizens of Shangdang do not want to become a part of Qin - they all wish to become a part of Zhao. Now Feng Ting has sent an envoy to offer it to us[23], what should we do?"




Zhao Bao replied, "Your servant has heard[24] that a wise individual regards unearned profits as a calamity."

The King said, "These people were attracted to me by my virtues. How can you call this unearned?"

Zhao Bao replied, "Qin has eaten away the lands of the Han family like a silkworm, severing them down the middle so that the two parts can no longer communicate. This is why you can expect to receive Shangdang with no effort - Han has only chosen to hand Shangdang to Zhao because it wants to foist its misfortunes upon us. Qin has done all the work, and Zhao will receive the benefits; even if we were large and strong we would have no right to expect such treatment from a small and weak state, being small and weak how could we expect it from a large and strong one? Now if Your Majesty takes this land, will you be able to say you earned it? Qin has set aside oxen and fields for this task and is shipping grain by river[25], with its all its front-line troops arrayed ready, upstream from Shangdang[26]. Its ordnances are strict and its policies well-enforced. It is impossible to fight against them. You should make your plans on this basis."

The King was extremely indignant and said, "We have deployed battalions millions strong, fighting for year upon year, and not seen the fall of a single city. Now without deploying any troops at all we can acquire seventy. Why should we not do it?" Zhao Bao left. 



The King summoned Zhao Sheng[27] and Zhao Yu[28], and told them about it, saying, "Han cannot hold Shangdang, so now it is giving the garrison to us. It has seventy fortified cities."

They both replied,  "Our troops have been deployed for years, and we have not seen the fall of a single city. Now by sitting and doing nothing we will gain seventy[29] - this is an immense profit." Accordingly, Zhao Sheng was sent to accept the land.



Zhao Sheng arrived and said, "The King of our humble state has sent me, your servant, as his envoy. We have received your message and I have been ordered to say the following[30]: 'We beg permission to bestow a domain of thirty thousand households upon the Prefect of Shangdang, and domains of a thousand households upon the County Magistrates, as well as to increase all official ranks by three degrees. You may gather together your citizens, and we will enrich each household by six gold pieces.'"

Feng Ting wept and would not meet Zhao Sheng's eyes as he said[31], "In that case, I would have to live with having committed three derelictions of duty. If, having been charged with holding this land for my sovereign, I cannot bring myself to die for it and simply hand it over to others, this will be the first dereliction of duty. If my sovereign intends me to give it to Qin, and I do not follow his orders, this will be the second dereliction of duty. If I sell my sovereign's land to live off the proceeds, this will be the third dereliction of duty." He declined the offer of a domain and returned to Han, where he spoke to the King, saying, "Zhao has heard that Han cannot hold Shangdang, and now they are dispatching troops to take it."


Han reported this to Qin, saying, "Zhao is raising troops to take Shangdang." The King of Qin was annoyed, and gave orders to Gongsun Qi[32] and Wang Yi[33] to intercept Zhao's troops at Changping[34].  

[1] King Zhaoxiang of Qin (306–251 BC) began life as a relatively minor prince, and served as a child hostage in Zhao before being sneaked out by Queen Xuan (his mother), her brother Wei Ran, and King Wuling of Zhao to assume the throne following the premature death of his brother, King Wu. Upon coming of age, he exiled Queen Xuan and Wei Ran, and worked with a succession of important figures of the age (Gan Mao, Fan Ju, Bai Qi...) to expand Qin's territory during the course of a long and successful reign.

[2] Prince Ta has appeared in the Qin chapters, but I have no more detailed information on him.

[3] The Xiao Mountains are on the border between Henan and Shanxi. The incident was an attempted invasion of Qin by five allied states in 325 BC.

[4] A li was around a third of a mile. 

[5] Lantian is near Xi'an in Shaanxi. The battle took place in 325 BC.

[6] Reading 滎 for 熒 here, per the commentaries. Xingyang is in modern Henan.

[7] The Taihang Mountains run between Henan, Shanxi and Hebei.

[8] Lord Yangcheng is not otherwise well-known, and this may, in fact, be a reference to Lord Chengyang, who was a politician in Han and later defected to Qi and then East Zhou. 

[9] Shangdang Commandery was a key strategic area between several states.

[10] Han Yang was a Han politician.

[11] Jin Tou is known principally via this story.

[12] Reading 支 for 有, per the commentaries.

[13] King Huanhui of Han (272 - 239 BC) seems to have taken the throne as a child and then spent much of his reign attempting to placate or distract Qin.

[14] The commentaries suggest that the 太 here may be superfluous.  

[15] I.e. the less you have of something, the more carefully you should preserve it. The quotation comes from the Zuozhuan. 

[16] Reading 失 for 太 here, per the commentaries.

[17] Reading 其亦 for 亦其 here, per the commentaries. This sentence is not clear and this is a best-guess interpretation. 

[18] Marquis Ying was also called Fan Ju, he was the Chancellor of Qin at the time.

[19] Feng Ting was a politician in Han.

[20] King Huiwen of Zhao (298 – 266 BC) was a younger son of King Wuling of Zhao, who abdicated in Huiwen's favour. Wuling's elder son, Zhao Zhang, rebelled, but was defeated and pursued by Huiwen's Chancellor, Li Dui. Zhao Zhang fled to his father's residence, where Li Dui besieged them. Wuling killed Zhang in an attempt to convince Li Dui to let him out, but Li Dui starved him to death. King Huiwen had a successful reign, defeating Qin more than once.

[21] The Shiji version gives seventeen.

[22] Reading 平陽君 for 平原君. Lord Pingyang, also known as Zhao Bao, was King Huiwen's younger brother.

[23] The Shiji version has 令 for 今 here, implying that Feng Ting is acting under King Huanhui's orders.

[24] The commentaries suggest that the 臣聞 here is superfluous.

[25] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence. It may be be intended to imply that Qin has already begun farming land in Shangdang. 

[26] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence. This is a compromise translation.

[27] Zhao Sheng, also known as Lord Pingyuan, was another brother of King Huiwen.

[28] Zhao Yu is not otherwise well-known.

[29] Reading 城七十 for 城, per the commentaries. 

[30] The commentaries disagree regarding the precise reading of this sentence, but the general sense is clear. 

[31] Reading 免 for 勉, per the commentaries. 

[32] Bai Qi, the greatest Qin General of the age.

[33] Wang Yi was another Qin General.

[34] The Battle of Changping took place in 260 BC. Qin won it in a notorious bloodbath.

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